The purpose of this study was to examine the reverse pathway dynamics between teachers’ self-efficacy and job satisfaction from a cross-country perspective. By recognizing the sparseness of empirical studies on the reciprocal relation between self-referent assessment of capabilities and job satisfaction, a model of reciprocal determinism between teacher self-efficacy and job satisfaction is proposed. The data of 51,782 primary school teachers were analyzed using a non-recursive causal reciprocal structural equation system within the overarching framework of structural equation modeling. The results indicated that teachers’ self-efficacy was reciprocally related to job satisfaction at the individuals’ level. Despite this finding, feedback effects were identified only across seven education systems. Further, it was shown via multigroup structural equation modeling that organizational culture (i.e., education systems) by proxy of the countries was moderating the structural relations among the recursive and non-recursive effects of the model. These findings underscore the importance of self-efficacy in promoting job satisfaction and indicate that more satisfied teachers are characterized also by greater teaching self-efficacy. The results are discussed within the scope of better understanding the relations between these two focal constructs for educational practice.